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Personal-Cultural Orientations (PCO) Scale

Please take your time to respond to the following items carefully and truthfully.

The Personal-Cultural Orientations (PCO)  scale is a validated, 40-item instrument that reconceptualizes Hofstede's five cultural dimensions as ten personal-cultural orientations on the individual level. 

Sharma, P. (2009). Measuring personal cultural orientations: Scale development and validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(6), 787-806. doi:10.1007/s11747-009-0184-7

Sharma, P., Wu, Z., & Su, Y. (2016). Role of personal cultural orientations in intercultural service encounters. Journal of Services Marketing, 30(2), 223-237. doi:10.1108/jsm-01-2015-0034


There are 40 questions in this survey.